Ancient India

Chinese Christian Schools
World History, 3rd Period

Chronology or History (Ryan and Kristina)
1. In The first major invasion of the Indus civilization was from the Aryans in 1500 B.C, the Aryans invaded northern India bringing with them their B.C. They brought strong traditions cultural influences that remain have lasted to the present day.
-After about 700 years, even though they moved farther south and east
-Developed iron tools and weapons
-Eventually settled around the Ganges Valley and built strong kingdoms in the northern part of India ~Ryan Chan
2. At around 500 B.C, India is again conquered by the Persians.
-After about a 150 year reign, Alexander the Great and his army of Greeks conquered the Persians at around 326 B.C
-While the Greeks and Persians fought, Aryan kingdoms were growing in the East. ~Ryan Chan
3. Chandragupta Maurya began to unite all of northern India starting from when he became king in about 321 B.C. To unite all of northern India, Chandruagupta first moved northwest. The ruler of this area of India was Seleucus I, who was one of Alexander the Great's many generals. As Chandruagupta repeatedly defeated him, Seleucus was forced to retreat and lose more and more of his land. Since Seleucus wanted to still be able to rule over the land he still had left, he made a peace treaty with Chandruagupta. Chandruagupta would keep the peace, but Seleucus had to give up some of his land and also give up his daughter as a wife for Chandruagupta. ~Kristina Chang
4. After a long time of invasions and disorder, a strong ruler named Chandra Gupta formed the Gupta Empire in 320 A.D. and lasted until 480A.D. It is known as India's golden age because arts and crafts flourished. Also, Chandra Gupta allowed more religious toleration. Hisson, Samudra Gupta expanded his empire during the 40 years he reigned starting in A.D 335. After enlarging his empire, his son, Chandra Gupta II, gained more land in around 380 A.D. by conquering their enemy in the west. This allowed India to take part in the trade with the Mediterranean people. Although Chandra Gupta II had some wars, he also was able to help his empire through peaceful treaties and alliances with other kingdoms. ~Kristina Chang

Geography (Rosanna and Emily)
1. Ancient India's terrian often presented challenges to the people because of its occasional droughts and monsoons. Also there are manyrivers that flow through India making the land fertile. The two mainrivers were the Indus River and Ganges River. -Emily
2.The geography of India is made up of deserts, mountains, forests, andjungles. Some of these geographic features helped the development ofAncient India. The Himalaya Moutains provided protection from nomadicand military invasions from the north while the other mountains provided similar protection in the west and east. The rivers in theIndus valley provided a source of trade and commerce. -Emily
3. The climate in India is mainly based on the surrounding natural landforms. Most of India was much warmer than the rest because of the Himalayas and the Thar desert. Though they had nice weather at times, whenever it snowed or rained, it could cause huge natural disasters to occur. -Rosanna
4. India is very rich with natural resources. They have the fourth-largest reserved for coal, the world's largest reserve for Thorium, and great sources of natural gases. In addition to these, they also had gold, diamonds, limestone, and mica. -Rosanna
Culture
Government (Anthony, Calvin, and Stephanie)
1. The country was ruled by an emperor. One example is Emperor Ashoka.Emperor Asoka ruled from 273 BC to 232 BC. Although he was mainly Buddhist, he did not impose his traditions and practices upon his people. He also greatly improved India's road systems. He paved new ways, literally, for India. [anthony]
2. In 326 B.C., the Indus Valley was under the control of the Greek conqueror, Alexander the Great, but he left the valley. In 321B.C., Chandragupta, a strong military leader, claimed the throne by killing the Nada king. This started the Mauryan Empire. Then he started conquering land surrounding the Indus Valley. By 303 B.C., Chandragupta had claimed more than 2,000 miles and united north India for the first time. ~Stephanie Tran
3. During the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta became emperor. His advisor, a priest named Kautilya, advised him to create a bureaucratic government to govern the entire empire. Chandragupta hand-picked his officials and watched them closely. He also chose a royal prince to lead each of the four provinces of the empire. Each province had its own district tax collectors and law enforcers. ~Stephanie Tran
4. Their government was a matriarcal one. This meant that power flowed through the female, whether it be the mother, sister, grandmother, or daughter. Like Egypt, you would want to marry the woman. The woman could very possibly be any of the above. One example of this was the famous Tamil ruler, which was the queen of the Pandyas. She was described as having an army of 500 elephants, 400 cavalry, and about 13000 infantry. [anthony]
5. Around 1500 B.C., the Aryans invaded India, the first ones to do so. The Aryans lived in tribes, or clans, and the chief of each tribe is like the "king." He made the all the decisions. Being a tribal chief was hereditary. If your father was a chief, most likely you would become one too. Unlike India in the later years, this Indian government, ruled by Aryans, was patriarchal. --Calvin
6. In 500 B.C., the Indus Valley was conquered by the Persians. So the Indus Valley was now a province of Persia. At that time, the Indian government was ruled by a king, not just many tribal chiefs, like the Aryans had. Two famous kings who ruled Persia were Cyrus and Darius.
--Calvin

Economics (Jessica and Max)
1. What jobs were held by the Indians was largely based on caste. The Vaishya (Sanskrit:वैश्य), being the merchant class, were the most influential in the economy. India's climate and natural resources made it prosperous for the time being. It has precious stones, ebony, ivory, silk, spices, rice, gold, as well as many other items of interest of others. These items were traded domesticly as well as internationally along the Silk Road. The rise of trade also brought around banks, which charged high interest rates (240% rip-off); danger played a role in interest rates. -Max
2. Trade was not only used through roads, but also rea routes. As early as 2500 B.C., India has had a port system. Since India was in the middle of Asia, it was able to create maritime trade to more regions than than the Romans or Chinese could. India was also the first country to have real battle fleets, which would serve as protection.
-Max
3. They were also known for their sophisticated city planning. The Mesopotamians’ streets were all messed up and crowded, but the Indians had their streets nicely laid out on a grid system. They also had ideas such as citadel, which has the major buildings of the city. They also had buildings that were built out of oven-baked bricks that were all the same size unlike the Mesopotamians. ~ Jessica
4. The Indus civilization’s artifacts show that the society was actually able to trade and afford to make nonessential products. They created seals and stamps that were carved stones that the merchants used to keep track and identify their goods. They also traded long-distance with the Sumerians. In the Sumerian civilization, there is evidence of seals from the Indus civilization’s trades, likewise in the Indus Valley. ~Jessica
5. India also traded with other nations such as China and West Asia. At that time, most of the Indians were farmers and grew crops such as wheat, rice, cotton, salt, cinnamon, and pepper. The Chinese traded them goods such as silk and pottery. ~Jessica
6. Many towns and cities had been developed as centers of trade and industry; they were successful even during periods of weak governmental control. Many of these towns, mainly in the south and west, were hubs for maritime trade. These cities had palaces, parks, baths, Hindu temples, Jain and Buddhist monasteries, and workshops. Small enterprises would develop into major industries usually under the control of caste-based guilds in these cities. -Max
7. Despite regional variations, uniformity was a fundamental idea in the Indus area. Throughout the Indus area, high-quality items such as flint blades, pottery, copper items, and stone beads were manufactured from the best materials available in the area, such as the flint from the Rohri Hills. Although the Indus people owed much of their success to the privileged Indus valley’s agricultural potential, a significant amount of the population were mobile herders. -Max (the really awesome cool guy)

Religion (Jasmine, Steven, and Melissa)
1. King Asoka of the Mauryan Empire in 269 B.C. introduced theBuddhistreligion in India. His religion was meant to be peaceful andconsistedof religious tolerance and unviolent natures. *Melissa
2. Hinduism was another main religion in India, consisting of manygods,but mostly priests practiced it because the practices andsacrificeswere so difficult to carry out, the regular, common peoplefeltseparated from the religion. However, Hinduism would spark newinterestas the religion pulled toward monotheism. *Melissa
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3. One of the groups of Buddhism was the Mahayana, which means"greatvehicle." There is little information known for the making oftheMahayana group. The Mahayana group was a more casual way ofworshipingBuddha. Mahayana originated circa 1st century BCE around theKushanEmpire, which is present day Pakistan. The Mahayana religion waslaterspread out to India, China, Tibet, Japan, Korea Vietnam, andTaiwan.The Mahayana group welcomed and allowed anybody to join thereligion.One of the ideas that the people of the Mahayana groupbelieved in wasthat anybody can become a Buddha. The aspiring Buddhaswere calledbodhisattvas. Bodhisattvas believed in doing good deedsrather thanhaving nirvana, which is inner peace and self satisfaction.- JasmineLee
4. Another group of Buddhism was the Theravada group, also known as Hinayana. Theravada means "the way of the elders." Theravada derived from Tamraparniya, which is a classification of the Vibhajjavada group, in circa 250 BCE. Theravada is practiced in Sri Lanka, China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Australia. The objective of the Theravada group is to be free from affliction and to acquire Nibbana(nirvana), unlike the Mahayana religion. The quickest way to gain Nibbana is to spread the word about Theravada. -Jasmine Lee
5. During the his reign (269-232 BC), Asoka sent out Buddhist missionaries to spread the doctrine of Buddhism around South-East Asia. As they traveled the Silk Roads, they converted people on the way. The first Chinese Buddhist monastery was established in 65 AD, where Buddhism began to flourish among the Chinese. By 300 AD Buddhism had traveled to Korea, and reached Japan by the mid 6th century (circa 538 AD).-Steven Leong
*6. During a time period lasting from 1500 BC to 500 BC (known as the Vedic period), Hinduism began to evolve towards a more monotheistic religion. The "new" Hinduism, influenced by the religions of the nations India traded with, focused itself around three gods (known as the Trimurti): Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the preserver of the present world, and Shiva, the destroyer of the world. The other gods worshipped previously became "sub-gods" or "different manifestations of the Trimurti."-Steven Leong

Society (Maria, Ellen, and Rachel)
1. During Chandragupta's reign from 321 B.C. to 301 B.C, farmers werewellrespected. After a visit to India, Megasthenes, Seleucus'sambassador,described how farmers lived in tranquility and security.They did nothave to join the military or travel to cities, wherebusiness anduproars were located. Instead, these men were confident oftheir safetyfrom outside enemies because others fought in battles andendangeredtheir lives in order to protect their country and let farmersharvesttheir land in peace. ~ Ellen Mok
2. Around the Gupta era in India, jobs included craftspeople andmerchants, but the majority of the villagers were farmers. Since manydroughts occured, famers had to irrigate their crops regularly.Together, a family of relatives all helped each other grow produce inthe field. During this period, there were also heavy taxes that made itespecially hard for farmers. For instance, people were taxed on waterand had to give a day of their produce for city constructions. Farmersalso had to give a large portion of their payments to the king duringthe Mauryan times. ~ Ellen Mok
3. Society was split into five social classes. Brahmins, who were priests and other religious techers, were at the top. Followed by kshatriyas (kings and warriors), vaishyas (merchants, farmers, landowners), shudras (craftsmen, land laborers), and outcasts. --rachel
4. Marriage was very strictly watched in the society in ancient India. For example, Brahmans cannot marry each other; therefore, the number of Brahmans increased. However, the Kshatriyas had to marry within their own family. As for the Vaisyas and the Sudras, they could marry each other, resulting in mixed jatis. = Maria
5. Both the men and the women wore an unstitch garment called dhoti. It was a piece of cloth that was about 9 meters long, draped around the legs and tied at the abdomen. The women wore bright colors which the men wore white or other sober colors. The Ancient Indians also wore a lot of jewelry. They wore crowns, armbands (baju-bandha), waist belts (kaya-bandh), bangles (choodi), anklets (painjan), earrings (jhumka), nose rings (nath), rings (anguthi), toe rings (jodavi), and other hair odornments when there was no crown. --rachel
6. The people of Ancient India tended to have a considerable amount of freedom, since Buddhism encouraged equality among the social classes, as well as between men and women. However, most people abused Buddhism by using it to increase their social status. Just donating to Buddhist temples or converting to Buddhism would often earn one respect from everyone. =Maria

Thoughts and Learning or Advancements (Andrea and Nathan)
1.Advancements were in astronomy, mathematics, and medicine.Indianastronomers noticed that the earth was round from solar eclipses.Theyalso developed a modern numeral/decimal system. Pi was calculated,aswell as the length of a year. Medicine books were compiled sothatfuture doctors would have guides on herbs that could be used totreatillness'. Plastic surgery was also invented. --Nate
2. Banking was invented so merchants would be able to borrow money.Thebankers would then gain profits by charging interest at rates as high as 240%. --Nate
3. Education started in India during the 3rd century, BC. Teachers taught orally until writing was developed. School was held in temples or community centers. After the spread of Buddhism, education was available to everyone because people needed to learn about the religion. - Andrea
4. Ancient Indians studied natural phenomenons through tides, rainfall, weather patterns, and the appearance of the sun and the moon. Ancient Indian scientists created their own theories that fall into the field of physics and chemistry today. - Andrea

Arts and Crafts (Jennifer and Nora)
1. .The Ancient Indians were skilled in pottery, bead making, andmetalworking. The pottery had pretty designs and were of high quality.Their metal creations included bowls of bronze and silver. Also, theartisans created a lot of small animal figures and small statues ofgods. Artistic styles were generally alike through all the regions. -Jen
2. The crafts made were often created for useful purposes, but some metal works and bead works were just for decoration. -Jen
3. Buddism also inspired indian art work. The artists would carve huge statues of buddah for the people to worship. These statues were not only costly but extremly detailed. -nora
4. Another form of indian art was temple decorating. Wealthy merchants would pay for the building of temples out of a solid rock. When the temple was completed, the artists would then decorate it with beautiful sculptures and elaborate paintings. -nora