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I. GOVERNMENT
1. Sparta had a republic style of ruling. There were two groups of rulers. The first group consisted of free, adult male citizens that discussed and voted on important topics. Another group was the Council of Elders. The Council of Elders consisted of five men called ephors that had the true power. These five men proposed the topics and laws that would be voted or decided. The first group of men could only vote, but the Council of Elders had the power to bring up the idea that would be voted and decided on by everyone. The ephors controlled the lives of every new born. Since Sparta was an empire based on fighting and military, only the healthy babies were kept because they would have more potential for fighting and winning triumphant battles. The insufficient babies were left on a hill to die. Basically, newborns belonged to the state, not to the family.

2. Athens had a democratic style of ruling. A leader named Cleisthenes wanted Athens to be a democratic empire. He allowed all the free, male external image EGslide8.jpgcitizens to vote and to also propose laws. This group of people became known as the Council of Five Hundred. The members of the Council of Five Hundred were elected randomly. However, free, male citizens were only one-fifth of the amount of people in Athens. Having such limited amount of people allowed only a limited amount of issues to be addressed. If not everyone could have a say in what they wanted, hardly anything would be accomplished. An empire consists of many different types of people in different social classes with different needs. Only twenty-percent of the empire was satisfied with Cleisthenes style of ruling. The other eighty-percent of the empire was probably unsatisfied with the treatment, and they make up the majority of the empire.
3. Athens style of democracy influenced American government. The founding fathers of the United States may have observed the Athen's style of government for a reference. In America, all citizens over eighteen right to vote and even though it is not a full democracy, everyone still has freedom.
2a.


II. ECONOMY
1. During the Peloponnesian War, Sparta and Athens were fighting against each other. Sparta fought on the land while Athens fought in the sea. Attacking Sparta would be harder because they were on land and could have more natural barriers like mountains. However, on sea, the Athens were basically a wide open target. Nothing could hide or camouflage them, except maybe fog every now an then. With Sparta's wise fighting strategies, they won the Peloponnesian War.
1a.external image Map%20Peloponnesian%20War.jpg
1b. external image greece_map.jpg
2. The Spartan's way of fighting on land influenced the American soldiers in the Civil War. The soldexternal image cwsold.jpgiers fought on their own land, just like the Spartans. Fighting on land was an advantage to these soldiers 2b. because they knew their land better than the enemies would. 2a.
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3. As you can see on map 1b, Atheexternal image shp_1_tm.JPGns was mainly a 'sea' area, making major jobs of shipbuilding, trading, fishing, and sailing. Therefore, the Athenian people became very good shipbuilders and navigators. These ideas from Athens' economy may have influenced today's trading and sailing occupations. 3b.
3a.

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III. RELIGION
1. Greek Mythology
Poems and other literature about Greek mythology, such as, Homer's epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, have greatly influenced today's western writers. These writers have used some Greek literature techniques in their writings. Aside from literature techniques, authors also include Greek culture and ideas, such as, ideas from Greek mythology, into their work.
1a. external image homer-1.jpg

2. The Greeks were a polytheistic group of people. One of the most prominent gods was Zeus. In order to honor Zeus, other gods, and "dead heroes," the Greeks started the Olympic Games. The stadium for the Olympics was built in Olympia.

3. Although the Greeks had many gods, all the gods stood for something. For example different emotions such as anger, love, and jealousy were portrayed though a god. The gods were also seen as very human-like. Their only difference was that they lived forever while the mortals died. The gods played a big part of the Greek culture. The goddess Athena even had the city of Athens named after her.

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IV. SOCIETY
1. The Spartans were a very war-like country. Their whole life revolved around being tough. Even their women were tough. It was thought that if the women were tough, they would produce tough babies. Women had all the legal rights as men, only they could not vote. Children belonged to the state and at the age of seven they were taken from their homes and placed in a "school". Once there they were trained to be tough soldiers. They learned that it was okay to steal as long as they did not get caught. Girls learned to wrestle at an early age too.

2.The Athenians differed almost entirely from the Spartans. Women had almost no legal rights. They had to wear veils and could not be heard outside the house. They were just a little better then slaves, because they were free. Men dominated society in Athens. As for children, they learned to read and write. This lead the way to many great philosophers rising in the Athenian society.

3. One of thexternal image Ancient-Olympic-Games.jpge most lasting parts of greek culture that we still see today is the Olympic games. However much has changed from when the early Greeks first invented this competition. When the Grexternal image walk.jpgeeks first started, there were foot races up to 200 yards. After awhile wrestling, boxing, jumping, and javelin-discus-throwing events were added to the Olympics. The event took place every four years and around 40,000 people were jammed into a stadium in Olympia to watch this popular sport. 2b.

2a.








V. THOUGHTS & LEARNING
1. Greek culture consists of many philosophers. One of the philosophers is Aristarchus. In Alexandria's museum, Aristarchus used the observatory to come up with two conclusions. In one proposal, Aristarchus said the sun was 300 times bigger than the Earth. Even though this is inaccurate, Aristarchus still proved that the sun was bigger than the Earth because many people at that time believed the Earth was bigger than the sun. On his second theory, Aristarchus believed that all the planets, including the Earth, revolved around the sun. Unfortunately, no one chose to believe him. Instead, everyone ignorantly chose to believe Ptolemy, who inaccurately proved that Earth was the center of the universe.
1a.
external image aristarchus.jpg external image ptolemy.jpg1b.

2. Greek ideas have influenced many of today's learning. For example, schools would not be teaching subjects, such as, geometry, biology, physics, and many others, if Greek philosophers had not made many of these important discoveries. Aristotle was an important philosopher because he contributed new thoughts to many scientific subjects, like, physics and biology, and pschology. Euclid, another contributer to thoughts & learning, wrote the first geometry book. These people are just some of the many Greek philosophers who are reasons why students study these subjects in schools now.
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VI. ARTS & CRAFTS
1. Classical Greece's two major types of drama were tragedies and comedies. The Greeks liked tragedies because they were usually based on extraordinary heroes that made tragic mistakes, causing failure. Like the Americans, the Greeks also enjoyed watching comedic plays. It was popular because actors could make fun of politics, important people, ideas, and such, and because of the democracy in Athens that allowed free speech, these actors would not have to worry about being persecuted.
external image maskscomedytragedy.gif Actors during Classical Greece usually used costumes, masks, and many other proexternal image drama-masks.jpgps to make the plays more effective and festive. Today, performers sometimes wear masks just for the fun of it. 1b.

1a.






2. The most important gexternal image athens-parthenon-greece-big.jpgoddess to Athens was Athena. In order to honor Athena and to glorify Athens, Pericles' built a temple, the Parthenon on the Acropolis.
2a.

3. One of thexternal image istockphoto_183331_greek_pillars.jpge most well known styles of art came from the pillars of Greece. There even were different kinds of these magnificiant pillars. The Dorian pillars were fat stubby pillars that bulged out on the sides. The Ionic pillars were thin and relatively plain. However the Corinthian pillars were elaborately decorated. The ruins at left is a picture of all that remains of a corinthian pillar. 3a.

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SOURCES:
I. Government
1. Jasmine
2. Jasmine
2a. Cleisthenes
3. Jasmine & Ellen

II. Economy
1. Jasmine
1a. Sparta
1b. Athens
2. Ellen & Jasmine
2a. Spartan soldiers
2b. American soldiers
3. Ellen
3a. Athenian ship
3b. American ship

III. Religion
1. Ellen
1a. Homer
2. Jasmine
3. Nora
2a. Olympics

IV. Society
1. Nora
2. Nora
3. Nora
3a. Classical Greece's Olympic Games
3b. Today's Olympic Games

V. Thoughts & Learning
1. Jasmine
1a. Aristarchus
1b. Ptolemy
2. Ellen
2a. Aristotle
2b. Euclid

VI. Arts & Crafts
1. Ellen
1a. Masks during Classical Greek drama
1b. Masks in today's drama
2. Jasmine
2a. Parthenon
3. Nora
3a. Remains of a Corinthian Pillar