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I. History
1. The Hittites were constantly at war, whether with the the Egyptians or the Philistines, the "Sea People." These wars were wars fought to capture land or to protect themselves from their violent neighbors. The Philistines eventually brought the empire to its knees and crumbling.

2. The height of the Hittite empire was in its New Kingdom period. The countries around them all wanted to control the trade in the Syrian region. Syria, at that time, was the middle-man of world trade such as those from the Aegean Sea, through ports such as Ugarit, which dominated in sea trade.

courtesy of history channel
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II. Geography
1. The Hittite empire started out in what is now the countries Turkey and Syria. They eventually expanded to the Mediterranean and Anatolia by the rule of the next few emperors.

2. Anatolia, the starting place of the Hittite empire, was cradled by mountains (Mt. Ararat, Mt. Hasan, Mt. Argaeus, and Mt. Nemrut), volcanoes, rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Iris, Sangarios, and the Halys rivers), and several bodies of water (Black Sea, Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea). In addition, two mountain ranges ran along Anatolia, being the Taurus mountain chain and the Pontic mountain chain.

3. In addition, the location of the Hittite empire was extremely beneficial, as it provided rich resources including metal ores, lumber, and divers species of game.


III. Culture
1. The Hittite’s culture was very special because they took facts from other cultures, gave it a twist and used it for their own. For example, they took one of Hammurabi’s Codes that said murderers would automatically be put to death and changed it to a more mild punishment. Now murderers could make up for what they did by giving the victim’s family and slave or child from his house.
1.5. Some civilizations that the Hittite culture was based on are the following:the Babylon, Assyria, Hattis, Sumeria, Northern Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.

A. Government
1. The Hittite's government was under a patriarchal rule. The Hittite king was supreme ruler, military commander, judicial authority, and high priest. Under the powerful king was a large number of nobles. The empire was large, and thus divided into small, manageable provinces to which he portioned to his family.

1.5. The provinces who did not have a leader assigned by the king had a "council of elders."

2. At the beginning of the Hittite empires, kings were selected and voted upon by the members of nobility.

3. Eventually, King Telepinus created a new set of laws, also known as the Edict of Telinpulis. According to these laws, if a king left no heir, there would be an anarchy. Also, if a king or his son is not up to the mark, assassination is strictly prohibited. Instead, the nobles should deal with it in a courteous manner. Telepinus hoped that these laws would end the Hittite pattern of assassinations and disunity among the royalty and the upper class. In addition, Telepinus established the idead of the Pankus, citizens who would judge the criminals and act as a council for the king.

4. The other members of the upper class had their own roles as well. The Queen was not only a figurehead;she had the power of signing documents and meeting with foreign leaders. The nobility consisted of the extended family of the King, but they had almost nothing to do with the royal family and did their own thing.

5. The main law of the Hittites was the revised version of Hammurabi's code. Their version was extremely merciful, for very few crimes resulted in death.

B. Economy
1. The Hittites' economy revolved around agriculture. They mainly grew barley and wheat.

1.5. In addtion to barley and wheat, they grew figs, grapes (that made wine), apples, pomegranates, beans, flax, and many others. They also collected honey from beehives.

2. The major occupations were cobblers, metal workers, carpenters, and blacksmiths. There were places that were richly inhabited by copper, silver, lead, and iron.

3. The main export was iron and copper, which were commonly used for weapons and household utensils. Iron was valued to great extremes, since only the Hittites learned how to deal with iron. It was said that Egypt once called for some iron, and the Hittites refused their request! Silver was also circulated, since it was the currency of the Hittites. Other imports/exports such as gold, alabaster, ivory, crystals, and lapis lazuli were possible, for artifacts garnished with the aforementioned were excavated.

C. Religion
1. Gods and Deities
The Hittites had gods from the Mesopotamians and North Syrians. The male deities were shown as wearing high pointed hats, short-skirted robes, and boots with long, curling toes. The female deities were shown with long, pleated robes and square hats. One carving at Boiazkoy (now Hattusas) shows sphinxes [below] and lions attending to the gods and goddesses.
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2.)The gods were a big part of the Hittites' religion. Their popularity among the people was determined by the importance of what they were god’s over. For example, the god of fertility and the god of water rose in popularity because they served important functions in daily life. Besides the main gods, there were also personal gods that protected your family, or brought you good luck. These gods were usually depicted in small statues made of pure gold.
3. The Hittites also practiced great tolerance as well as respect towards other religions. NEVER did they label other cultures' gods or goddesses as false or inferior.


D. Society
1. From the start, Aryans were divided into three social classes: Brahmins, warriors, and peasants or traders. Not long after, another social class was formed, the shudras, or laborers and craftsmen As the Aryans became more settled, social classes became more strict. People were no longer able to mix freely. The shudras were identified by their skin color and did all the work that the Aryans neglected to do. Not long after, this system of society became known as varnas but changed again to castes when Portugal explorers discovered it. What castes you were born into basically determined your life. It determined what job you would have, who you would marry, and what people you ate with. To give a visual picture of the different social classes and what jobs they held, the Aryans used the body of the creator god, Brahma. Each body part represents a different social class. The head represented the priests, the arms represented the rulers and warriors, the feet represented the laborers and the legs represented the peasants and traders. They called this system, the "Aryan Caste System". external image brahma2.jpg

2. Women also, unlike other nations, played prominent roles in the country, more specifically the queen. Pudupepa, wife of Hattusilis III, is more usually associated with her husband, the king, in treaties as well as important documents of the state and she even wrote letters back and forth with foreign rulers,all in her own power.

3. Slaves in the Hittite society had rights, for if their master abused them, they could have a legal representative present their case to the public. However, any compensation (or punishment) made on their behalf would be half the about of the regular citizen's.

4. The Hittites' jobs also changed every season. During the winter, they would focus on arts and crafts, specifically on metal work. As for the spring and the summer, the Hittites would go to war or focus on agriculture.

external image luwian.jpg E. Thoughts and Learning
1. The adopted a form of hieroglypic writing, like the Egyptians. Archaeologists suspect that an earlier version of this language, the Luwian language, may have been based upon cuneiforms, wedged-shape carvings made on clay. The later Luwian language was used mainly in the 10th to 8th century BC, after the Hittite empire's fall.

2. The Hittites, being the very skilled metalworkers they were, had a great militant advantage over other armies at that time: They had chariots. No, not chariots of fire, chariots of iron. These chariots could accomodate up to 3 people: A driver, an archer, and a soldier.

3. In addition to using iron for chariots, the Hittite’s broadened their range to include weapons and tools. They became the first people in Southwest Asia to smelt iron and harden it into warlike weapons. The process of making iron was a complicated one. For a long time the Hittite’s made iron from meteorites, but as time progressed they got the supplies from the mountains of Anatolia (Asia Minor). Pretty soon the Hittites became well known for their iron, both though conquests and trade

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external image ccc-Hittite-Griphon-big.jpgF. Arts and Craft
1. Arts of the Hittite People
A. Styles
The Hittite art styles came from the Sumerians and Babylonians. These pieces of art often contained elaborate gold and bronze decorative pieces [below]. The Hittites were immensely skilled carvers and metalworkers, thus explaning the many pieces or jewelry as well as stone temples and reliefs.


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external image samostunnel.jpg2. Hittite Crafts
A. Architecture
They spent well over ten years to finish these tunnels. It was designed by Eupalinas, son of Naustophos. The tunnel itself These elaborate tunnels built by an order from the tyrant ruler, Polycratis, in 520BC. These were aquaducts used to carry fresh drinking water to the city. It was 1040 meters long, dug in from both ends. It had a diameter of 2.5 meters. It was 5.5 meters above sea level. (see right)


B. Tools
1. They also made everyday items, such as vases, like the ones below.

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History/Geography/: http://touregypt.net/featurestories/hittites.htm
Culture|Religion: http://touregypt.net/featurestories/hittites.htm
Culture|Thoughts and Learning: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040613/Hittite-hieroglyphic-writing
Culture|Arts and Craft|Arts: http://www.bartleby.com/65/hi/Hittitea.html
Culture|Arts and Craft|Crafts:
Culture: http://idcs0100.lib.iup.edu/WestCivI/culture12.htm
Government: http://idcs0100.lib.iup.edu/WestCivI/hittite_government.htm

Textual Credit:

Title: Rachel Yee
History: Anthony Chu
Geography1: Anthony Chu
Geography2-3: Maria Ly
Culture1: Nora Szeto
Culture1.5: Maria Ly
Government1: Anthony Chu, Rachel Yee
Government1.5-5: Maria Ly
Economy 1: Anthony Chu, Rachel Yee
Economy 1.5:Maria Ly
Economy 2: Anthony Chu, Rachel Yee
Economy 3: Maria Ly
Religion1: Anthony Chu
Religion 2: Nora Szeto
Religion 3: Maria Ly
Society 1: Nora Szeto
Society 2: Anthony Chu
Society3-4: Maria Ly
Thoughts and Learning1: Anthony Chu
Thoughts and learning 2: Nora Szeto
Arts and Craft: Anthony Chu


Map of the Hittite Empire: Anthony Chu
Sphinx: Anthony Chu
Brahma: Nora Szeto
Hieroglyphs: Anthony Chu
Chariot: Anthony Chu
Bronze Ornament: Anthony Chu
Stone Relief: Anthony Chu
Water Tunnel: Anthony Chu
Pottery: Anthony Chu
Video: Anthony Chu